Rhodesia - Intaf

Callsign - Lighthouse

Keeps and Protected Villages

Studies of the British concept of protected villages (PVs) in Malaya and of Portuguese "Aldeiamentos" in Mozambique and Angola were conducted.  The construction of protected villages in Malaya was successful in keeping the local population separate from the enemy.  It effectively took the enemy’s source of food, information and home comforts away from them on a daily basis.  Mao’s adage (keep the fish separate from the water and they no longer are able to swim) was thus applied against the enemy who made every effort to do the same to try and control the population following their own doctrine. 

The establishment of protected villages was extremely annoying for the terrorists and therefore the protected villages were constantly being attacked in an effort to chase the people back into their original villages.  The people were in the middle of this struggle.  Many were pleased to be in the protected villages as there was security for them.  Schools, clinics and shops sprang up in many of the protected villages. Others were very upset that they had been forced to go into the PVs.  Their sympathies lay with the terrorists.  However, the majority of people took it in their stride and settled down to a different way of life.

The decision to move the rural population into protected villages for their own safety was then adopted in 1972.  This responsibility was given to Intaf.  Taking into consideration the proximity of traditional homes, burial sites and crop planting suitable sites were identified and construction began.  The first Protected Villages were constructed in the Mount Darwin district and from there, spread to other areas.

 Each protected village included a tactically placed Keep.  Defined in the Encyclopaedia Britannica as the place of last resort in case of siege or attack.  It was either a single tower or a larger fortified enclosure.  The Keep was the barracks for the members of Intaf who stayed in the village.  Keeps varied slightly in shape and size and generally started off with the construction of earth walls with parapets and bunkers for defence purposes.  Thereafter accommodation was built and comprised of either two or three prefabricated "A frame" type buildings in which the troops slept.  One building was used as an HQ with a radio room and ops room.

Once the security fences (often several kilometres long) had been placed around the village the locals then were moved in and they built their own huts on allocated sites.  Protected bunkers were strategically placed on the perimeter so that patrols had places to obtain cover when they came under attack.  A curfew was declared in most areas and gates were locked at sundown.  Patrols were mounted throughout the village.  The gates were unlocked at sun up and villagers then went to their fields to work or to go about their daily business.  Stores sprang up and a new social order developed.  Hygiene improved generally and water was laid on for the people at communal pumps. 

The effect on the insurgents was that they were unable to get support from the people.  However one must be realistic and understand that villages were infiltrated from time to time.  Villagers threw food over the fences occasionally but this was generally curtailed by effective patrolling.

Many Intaf members were killed or wounded defending the people of the protected villages.  In fact Intaf sustained the second highest number of casualties within the security forces. This was due to the very nature of the tasks carried out.

Intaf were responsible for constructing and manning protected bases or sub offices throughout the operational area so that they could remain insitu on a permanent basis during the war.  The following numbers of bases per province refer.

Mashonaland West.  14

Mashonaland Central.  18

Mashonaland East.  11

Midlands.  9

Manicaland.  17

Matabeleland North.  10

Matabeleland South.  12

Victoria Province.  8

Total.  99

Number of Protected Villages in the country during the war.

Matabeleland South  7

Manicaland  41

Mashonaland Central  101

Mashonaland East  57

Victoria Province  22

Total.  228

A Keep being constructed in Mount Darwin

Mudzi Keep, Mudzi.

Chimoyo Keep, Mtoko
A Keep and PV in Mount Darwin district
Keep barrack room inspection
Mashambanaka Keep Mrewa.  DAs doing morning PT.

Mudzi Keep

Typical interior of a Keep HQ
Pachanza Keep Mukumbura.  RhAF Alo helicopter refuel.
Chimoyo Keep, Mtoko
Pachanza Keep Mt Darwin. Morning flag raising parade.  Barry Mulder photo.
Pachanza PV Mt Darwin.  Barry Mulder photo.
Pachanza PV Mt Darwin.  Alo III refuel.  Barry Mulder photo.
Nyakasoro Keep under construction. Mrewa

Mukumbura PV. Mt Darwin

Fort Chapoto, Sipolilo. Gerry van Tonder photo.
Nyakasoro Keep, Mrewa
Pachanza Keep Mt Darwin. Barry Mulder photo.

Pachanza PV Mt Darwin.  Barry Mulder photo.

Pachanza PV Mt Darwin.  Barry Mulder photo.

Nyakasoro Keep, Mrewa.
Fort Desolation, Charewa, Mtoko
Nyamande Keep, Mudzi.  Dave Clutton photo

PROTECTED SUBOFFICES / BASES

 

PROVINCE / DISTRICT        NAME                        MAP REF

Mashonaland West

Gatooma                              Ngesi                           TQ4936

                                               Sanyati                       QL3716

Hartley                                 Mubayira                   TQ4872

Kariba                                   Mola                           PM3725

                                                Negande                   PL3199

                                                Sampakaruma         PM8802

Lomagundi                          Chirau                        SR9948

                                               Kenzamba                 QL7766

                                               Murombedzi             TR0342

                                               Trelawney                 TR1755

                                                Zimbara                    RL0845

Urungwe                                 Hillandale               QM9158

                                                Kazangarara             RM0266

                                                Magunje                    QM5736

 Matabeleland North

Binga                                      Kariyangwe                NL5315

Bubi                                        Sigande                       PJ5458

Lupane                                   Jotjolo                         NK5829

                                                Siwale                         NK7959

Nkai                                        Dakamela                    PK7522

                                                Zwelabo                      PJ5897

Nyamandhlovu                     Dhlamini                     NJ4344

Wankie                                   Lupote                         MK9654

                                                Mabali                        NK0747

                                                Ndhlovu                      LK9298

 Matabeleland South

Beit Bridge                            Shashi                         QF3556

Gwanda                                 Bulabela                      QG2801

                                                Kafusi                         PG8212

                                                Makwe                        PG8381

                                                Tuli                             QG0634

Insiza                                     Avova                         QG6297

                                                Silalabuhwa                QH4100

Matobo                                  Lubankwa                   PG6930

                                                Sigangatsha                PG4034

Plumtree                               Ingwezi                       NG9164

                                                Madhlambuzi             NH4672

                                                Mayobodo                   PG1937

 Midlands

Belingwe                               Keyara                        QG7785

                                                Mataga                       TM0893

Charter                                  Sadza                          UQ3800

Chilimanzi                            Mbedzi                       TP5021

Gwelo                                    P.D.O. Base                QJ6656

Que Que                                Exchange                   QK2017

                                                Silobela                       QJ4399

                                                Zhombe                      QK4833

Selukwe                                Donga                          SP9810

 

Manicaland

Buhera                                  Birchenough               VN3192

Chipinga                               Chibuwe                      VN2835

                                               Chisumbanje               VN1800

                                               Mutema                      VN3376

Inyanga                                Nyamaropa                 VR9123

Makoni                                 Chikore                       VR4743

                                               Mayo                           VR2224

                                               Sansaguru                   VQ0442

                                               Tanda                          VR4420

Melsetter                              Chakowa                     VP4837

                                               Nyanyadzi                   VP4015

Mutasa                                 Pungwe                       VQ9567

                                               Ruda                            VQ8656

Umtali                                  Chitakatira                  VP6785

                                               Makomwe                   VP6088

                                               Muromo                      VP5670

                                               Zimunya                     VP6088


 Mashonaland Central

Bindura                                Manhenga                   UR2176

Centenary                            Gutsa                           TS8392

Darwin                                 Bveke                          US7067

                                               Dotito                          US4866

                                               Mukumbura                UT6009

                                               Nembire                      US2977

                                               Pachanza                     US6979

                                               Chiunye                      US5646

                                               Kajokoto/Chavanda    US5862

                                               Muzengerere               US4559

Mazoe                                   Chombira                    TS9212

Shamva                                Bushu                          US5300

                                               Madziwa                     US3921

Sipolilo                                 Angwa                         TT1117

                                               Chitima                       TT1622

                                               Kachuta                       TS3371

                                               Mahuwe                      TS5887

                                               Mashumbi Pools         TT3810

 

Mashonaland East

Goromonzi                          Chehamba                   UR1058

                                               Marufu                         UR4054

Marandellas                        Mahusekwe                 UQ1075

                                               Soswe                          UQ6170

Mrewa                                  Magunje                      UR7176

                                               Mashambanaka          UR7589

                                               Muskwe                      UR8878

Mtoko                                   Charewa                      VS1102

                                               Tsiko                           VR1885

Mudzi                                   Kondo                         VS6233

Wedza                                  Mukamba                    UQ7610

 

Victoria

Bikita                                  Chikuku                      UN8090

                                             Wudzi                         UN7941

Chibi                                   Ngundu Halt               TM7198

Gutu                                    Mpindimbe                 UP5429

Ndanga                               Chivamba                   UN 3220

Nuanetsi                             Neshuro                      TM5483

Victoria                               Muchibgwa                 UN0821

                                             Muchakata                  TN8340

 

PROVINCIAL TOTALS

Mash West      14

Mash Central  18

Mash East       11

Midlands         9

Manicaland     17

Mat North       10

Mat South       12

Victoria           8

 

TOTAL 99

PROTECTED VILLAGES AS AT 14TH APRIL 1978

 

PROVINCE/DISTRICT          NAME OF PV MAP REF

Matabeleland South

Beit Bridge                             Chaswingo                  TL4358

                                                Chikwarakwara           UL2018

                                                Chiturapasi                 TL7244

                                                Mushambe                  SL9838

                                                Pande                          TL1933

                                                Penemene                   TL0877

                                                Tongwe                       SL9374

 

Manicaland

Buhera                                    Devuli                         VN2792

Chipinga                                 Charuma                     VN3487

                                                Checheche                  VN1904

                                                Chibuwe                      VN2738

                                                Chikore                       VN4740

                                                Chisumbanje               VM1798

                                                Gumira                        VN2522

                                                Kondo 1                      VN5043

                                                Kondo 2                      VN3645

                                                Mabuyaye                   VN3374

                                                Machona                     VM1491

                                                Maduku                       VN3408

                                                Manesa                       VN3377

                                                Manzwire                    VN3114

                                                Maunganidza              VN3493

                                                Mudzimwa                  VN3674

                                                Mushanhi                    VN3879

                                                Mutandahwe               VM1677

                                                Mwacheta                   VN3441

                                                Ngaone                        VN5590

                                                Nyunga                       VN3688

                                                Pfidze                          VN4843

                                                Rebayi                         VN4643

                                                Rimbi                          VN3628

                                                Sabi Bridge                 VM1479

                                                Veneka                        VM1185

Mutasa                                   Gatsi                           VQ8153

                                                Hauna                          VQ8455

                                                Honde B/Centre          VQ7947

                                                Mandeya                     VQ9861

                                                Manunure / Samanga VQ7147

                                                Moyoweshumba         VQ6343

                                                Mponda                       VQ7645

                                                Pimayi                        VQ9765

                                                Ruda                            VQ8557

                                                Rumbizi                      VQ9367

                                                Sachisuka                    WQ0067

                                                Sagambe                     VQ9976

                                                Samaringa                   VQ7743

                                                Sawumani                   VQ8049

                                                Zindi                           VQ9368

 

Mashonaland Central

Centenary                               Hoya                           US1695

                                                Mzarabane                  TS8785

                                                Sowe                           TS8987

Mt Darwin                            Bandimba                   US7990

                                                Bveke                          US7067

                                                Bvunzamombe            US7742

                                                Chakoma                     US4574

                                                Chatumbana                US6352

                                                Chibara                       US6362

                                                Chibwe                        US6370

                                                Chidzanya                   US5574

                                                Chigango                    US8286

                                                Chigogo                      US4468

                                                Chimimba                   US4752

                                                Chimvuri                    US6757

                                                Chinyandura               US4163

                                                Chironga                     US 7963

                                                Chiswiti                      US6390

                                                Chisato                        US6972

                                                Chiunye                      US5345

                                                Chiwidze                     US6580

                                                Dotito                          US4867

                                                Dzveya                        US7659

                                                Gumbezi                     US7568

                                                Jawara                         US9154

                                                Kaitano North             US4497

                                                Kaitano South             US4596

                                                Kahwa                         US5558

                                                Kamusenzere              US6990

                                                Kajokoto                     US5692

                                                Kandeya                      US4350

                                                Kangaire                     US7555

                                                Karuyana                    US4153

                                                Katarira                       US6205

                                                Maendaenda               US3175

                                                Magada                       US4766

                                                Manyika                      US5069

                                                Maripfonde                 US2077

                                                Matitima                     US8650

                                                Mfuri                          US5350

                                                Mudimu                      US5063

                                                Mudzengerere             US4559

                                                Mukumbura 1             US6009

                                                Mukumbura 2             US5808

                                                Mukombwe                 US5269

                                                Muteravendi               US8369

                                                Mutsanobaya              US4462

                                                Nembire                      US2577

                                                Nembire                      US2977

                                                Noro                            US8761

                                                Nowedza                     US4072

                                                Nyachawesa                US5659

                                                Nyajenje                     US6443

                                                Nyakasikana               US7050

                                                Nyamanja                   US5157

                                                Nyamara                     US8358

                                                Nyamhembwe             US6662

                                                Nyanzunza                  US5850

                                                Nyatande                     US6696

                                                Nyatsoko                     US8150

                                                Pachanza                     US6979

                                                Pfunyanguwo              US8179

                                                Ruwani                        US3873

                                                Sohwe                         US5775

                                                St Johns                      US3475

                                                Zambara                      US5788

Mazoe                                     Bari                             US0022

                                                Bell Rock                    TS9904

                                                Chaona                        US1443

                                                Chigwidi                     US1335

                                                Chenehasha                 US0728

                                                Gunguwe                     TS9316

                                                Jinganvura                  US0839

                                                Kanyemba                   TR9595

                                                Madombgwe               TS9625

                                                Muchirakuenda           TS9613

                                                Mukodzongi               US0521

                                                Musarara                     TS8600

                                                Negomo                      TS9007

                                                Nyachuru                    TR8895

                                                Nyakudya                    US0217

                                                Nyota                          TR9297

                                                Nzvimbo                     TS9310

                                                Rgwere                        TS9628

                                                Rosa                            TS9405

                                                Shopo                          US0817

                                                Shutu                           US0212

Shamva                                   Chedombo                 US3611

                                                Chidabge                     US3222

                                                Chiuri                          US3430

                                                Chiskapa                     UR5197

                                                Dikitiri                         US4215

                                                Gono                           US4604

                                                Goora                          US4528

                                                Guyu                           US5501

                                                Madziwa                     US3622

                                                Mufuri                        US4034

                                                Mushowani                 US4223

                                                Nyamaruru                  US3126

                                                Umfurudzi                  US3014

                                                Zwirungurina              US5504

 

Victoria Province

Chiredzi                                  Boli                             UM4318

                                                Chikedziwa                 UM7438

                                                Chikombedzi              UM2602

                                                Chilonga                     UM6052

                                                Chingele                     UM5830

                                                Chitsa 1                       VM 0865

                                                Chitsa 2                       VM1166

                                                Domisa                       UL3643

                                                Gudo’s Pool                VN1704

                                                Machindo                    UM5523

                                                Makosiya                    UM8249

                                                Malapati                     UL3659

                                                Mareya                        VM0688

                                                Mase                           UL3156

                                                Mpagati                      UM3210

                                                Muteyo                       VM0785

                                                Pahlela                         UL2975

                                                Rupangwana               VM1277

                                                Sabi School                 VM1071

                                                Samu                           UL3537

                                                St Joseph’s                  VM1598

                                                Tshovani                     VM0780

 

Mashonaland East

Mrewa                                     Borera                        US9018

                                                Chidodo                      UR8687

                                                Chipfunde                   UR8796

                                                Chitimbe                     UR7171

                                                Guyu                           US9719

                                                Karimbika                   UR9586

                                                Kaseke                         UR6578

                                                Katiyo                         UR7796

                                                Magunje                      UR7177

                                                Manyika                      UR8380

                                                Mashambanaka           UR7859

                                                Matsenga                    UR7884

                                                Morris                         UR7485

                                                Musanhi                      UR9175

                                                Muskwe                      UR8879

                                                Mutawatawa               UR9108

                                                Nhakiwa                      UR7280

                                                Nyagande                    US7805

                                                Nyakasoro                   VS1430

                                                Nyamhara                   UR9677

                                                Rukariro                      UR7772

Mtoko                                     Bondamakara              VR3391

                                                Chimoyo (akaSasa)    VR4084

                                                Chindenga                   VR0594

                                                Chipfiko                      VR3477

                                                Chitekwe                     VR2377

                                                Danda                          VS1007

                                                Gurure                         VR0688

                                                Kagande                      VS1001

                                                Kapondoro                 VR4579

                                                Katavinya                   VR3994

                                                Katsakunya                VR0877

                                                Kaunye                        VR2675

                                                Makosa                       VR4490

                                                Maneemba                  VR0177

                                                Mshimbo                    VR3672

                                                Mudzonga                  VR3185

                                                Mutswaire                  VR1278

                                                Nyamazuwe               VR2091

                                                Rukau aka All Souls   VR3581

                                                Tarewa                        VR1697

                                                Tsiko                           VR1885

Mudzi                                     Benson                        VS2220

                                                Chipako                      VR7799

                                                Gozi                            VS8601

                                                Kagoma                      VS6824

                                                Kondo                         VS6233

                                                Marembe                    VS7123

                                                Makasha aka Mtondo VR5589

                                                Morosi                                    VS4928

                                                Njera                           VS5617

                                                Nyakuchena                VR4692

                                                Nyamakoho                VS2812

                                                Nyamande                   VR6898

                                                Shinga                         VS3920

                                                Stephen                       VS4911

                                                Suswe                          VS3504

 

Total no of PVs as at 14 April 1978

Matabeleland South 7

Manicaland 41

Mashonaland Central 101

Mashonaland East 57

Victoria Province 22

 

Total 228